Welcome to How To Cook That I'm AnnReardon and today we are looking at gluten.
Gluten free diets are becomingmore and more popular nowadays.
So many celebrities are promoting them.
“So rightthis second we're doing gluten free dairy free which is so hard.
” There are plentyof gluten free YouTube videos too with what I eat in a daygluten free gluten free dairy free gluten free vegan or a mixture all ofthose things in there and you guys have asked me in the comments about glutenand gluten free diets so many times.
So is it serious or is it just a fad? Thecurrent market for gluten free foods are sitting at 4 billion dollars a year andthat is set to increase to 6.
5 billion by 2025! The crazy thing is that eventhough gluten-free foods are skyrocketing, the demand for wheat is also increasing which is very interesting and I'llexplain how that works later on in the video.
Firstly what even is gluten? Idon't know I don't know I don't know no one knows.
🤣As soon as I know I'msure you guys will be the first to know like I promise like it will beeverywhere! Gluten is actually the protein part of the wheat grain it'salso found in rye and barley and it's not really found in any other grains soit's unique to the wheat rye and barley the word gluten actually means glue andit helps to bind together doughs and give them that stretchy feel.
There arelots of gluten-free flours available on the market now you'll be able to findthem quite easily in most supermarkets and if we have a look on the back hereyou can see this one is made mainly from starches so maize and tapioca starchthen flours rice and maize flour rice bran and thickener four one five.
Thickener four one five is xanthum gum and that's used very often ingluten-free flours to try and mimic the gluten effect.
Now if I was to make abread dough out of normal flour and then make the exact same recipe out ofthis gluten-free flour you'll be able to easily see the difference.
The one madefrom the normal flour is really stretchy you can just pull it it's quite elasticand that's the gluten in it that is allowing it to stretch.
By comparison theexact same bread recipe but with the gluten-free flour in it just pulls apartit's not stretchy because it doesn't have any gluten in it.
It does have thexanthum gum in it so it has a little bit of stretch to it but it's just not thesame.
If you take the normal bread dough you can actually wash it under water andwash away all the starch because the gluten is not soluble in water it's notgoing to dissolve.
So if you just keep washing that dough under water afterabout 10 minutes you end up with all these little bits of gluten and if youkeep washing away the starch eventually you're left with a ball of gluten or thestretchy wheat protein.
Now if I do the same thing with the gluten-free flourand run that under running water and just keep washing it and washing itthere is no gluten in it so you end up just washing everything away until youhave just an empty sieve.
Now we can take the ball of gluten and I can now showyou what gluten does .
if I put that in the microwave there's still a little bitof water in here from washing it so that's going to create steam and thegluten see how that's stretching and making bubbles.
This is what it does inthe bread too as the steam comes and the yeast creates gas the glutenstretches and creates bubbles and gives it that texture that you get in thebread .
that airy holey structure to it now a strange that looks this ball ofpure gluten is the main ingredient in a vegan meat replacer that is very popularin Asian countries particularly in China and in Japan.
There is a product brandcalled I think it's Seitan (tell me if I've pronounced that incorrectlyI'm sure I probably have) it has all different flavors and varieties of veganmeat replacer that's made using this wheat gluten.
If you wantto try making your own all you need to do is make the ball of gluten.
Chuck 🇦🇺thatin the blender with some beans and some barbecue sauce and then you can addwhatever other flavoring you want like some powdered onions and powdered garlicwhatever you want in there.
Make it into whatever shape you want it to be thensteam that for 20 minutes.
Now it expands as it cooks so it'll be bigger afterthat and then once it cools you can use it just like normal meat.
Slice it, stir-fry it or crumb coat it .
now I do realize that eggs are not vegan so don'troast me 🥚 you can use whatever vegan egg replacers you like here and then you canfry it up.
It feels softer to cut through the normal meat does and it looks likechicken the Seiton has a brown color added to it obviously to make it lookmore meat colored.
It's a little bit softer and tiny bit watery in your mouthcompared to meat but it's actually not bad I thought it was going to behorrible but it's actually edible is actually pretty good.
Now this is why thewheat sales have continued to rise even though gluten-free has been on the risebecause the demand for vegan meat replacers has been taking off around theworld and gluten because it is quite chewy it gives more of that texture thatmeat has when compared to something like tofu or just using beans on their own itgives more of a meat texture so that has just taken off and increased the demandfor wheat.
Anyway I digress back to our bread if I have the two dough's one madewith gluten-free flour and one made with normal flour the exact same recipe andthen I bake those in the oven you can see that the one made with the normalflour has risen right up.
Now they both have yeast in it and yeast has madebubbles of air in there but the gluten has been able to stretch and hold theshape of those bubbles and as it's baked it kind of sets and then you end up withthose bubbles staying all the way through the bread.
Whereas the glutenfree flower just wasn't able to replicatethat.
So using the exact same recipe you end up with a completely different endproduct so you have to make quite a lot of alterations in gluten-free cooking inorder to end up with a similar end product.
I'll put a few tips on the howto cook that website for different baking things and things you can do inorder to change the recipe to make it a little bit better if you're makinggluten-free recipes.
So because of the increased demand for gluten-free foodthere is so much more available now but it is still heaps more expensive so forexample to buy gluten-free bread cost me three times the price of buying normalbread for the same amount of bread 💵Wow.
the other products I got were all theleast double if not one and a half times as expensive so the bread was the mostdifference in price but I thought what would do is do some taste testing soI've got Dave in because you know who loves to taste things.
Hmmm, love the taste.
The honest reviewer!And I've got a little sign it says gluten-free Dave and gluten-free Ann sothat we can taste and then put it next to the one we think is gluten-free soI've got a few different things to taste so let's start with the bread to startwith this one .
all right okay okay so bread mmm definitely bready 🍞 In this onewe're gonna go this one is gluten free because I like that one better and I'm assuming the GF one won't be as good.
that one's a little fluffier it is it'sa lot more fluffy a bit more chewy in the texture.
So we're going for this oneas gluten free let me check if we're right right.
One point for you one point for me.
Yeah! Alright next I got one of your favorites yeah some crackersmaybe let's taste this one first.
hmm Those ones are good? Just thinking it through.
These onesobviously lacking the food coloring of the other ones but let's give them a taste.
They're actually not bad the texture's not bad it doesn't have anywhere near the flavorpunch of those ones mm-hmm this one has a far more flavoring added to it but thetexture of those.
pretty nicethey're definitely the gluten free ones.
I'm going to gluten free as wellwith those ones let me talk not too bad I think we can tell by looking at themgluten-free 1 point each.
easy to tell so far moving on let's have a taste I'm gonnabreak this one.
Wow oh wow crunchy bit dry mm-hmm definitely come alittle bit of strength to it that one.
it tastes like it has the feeling like I'vejust put flour in my mouth mmm it's that dryness with the extra.
That'snot quite what I was expecting.
It's still alright.
This one melt in your mouth notgluten-free.
gluten-free wait I haven't decided yet.
You can choose.
It's reallyhard to replicate the exact qualities of gluten in wheat in a recipe with nogluten.
I'm assuming we're right but let's check .
3 for 3 so far.
This isthe best taste test I've done in years! Definitely months .
too many debunking videos! Oreos.
That's similar to the last onewhen you first bite into it it's good it's got the crunch and then you getthat floury aftertaste.
That's like a cheap cookie I know it's probablythree times the price but that's like one of those cheap cookies you get nowthey've ripped off the real thing.
Not so nice.
We should try the real thingthough yeah we've already decided but just in case.
These are called Weet-bix andthere are very well known Aussie breakie 🇦🇺 Aussie kids are weet-bix kids.
Ilike them crunchy with the milk just poured on do you like them crunchy or soggy? I quite like them soggy.
well I'm gonna have to eat fast so theycan taste each one.
Alright I'll try this one here yeah it looks a little bit composty this one.
It looks healthy.
That one tastes like Weet-Bix Wow! That tastes like hay.
if I was a cow I'd definitely be getting into that.
Let's double check, does that say gluten-free? It does.
GF Dave says this is gluten-free.
We've got all of these right.
There's one more to go.
Oh this is my favorite mm-hmm pretty excited right now.
mm-hmmI like it, try this one.
One time I was in Malaysia and I got some twisties and I didn't check theflavor and it was cuttlefish flavored twisties which was horrendous but I wasreally hungry so I ate them.
I think they're gluten-free cos they're a littlebit cuttlefishy.
They don't taste of cuttlefish.
I think you're a real fan of Twisties.
Oh I'm a connoisseurI should be their ambassador .
twisties watch this video do me a solid.
Whereas I could take or leave twisties so both of them taste perfectly fine to me but I can tell.
Well I'll take them then.
But I can tell they've got a stronger flavor to them a bit like the crackers didso I'd say these are the gluten-free but I'm gonna stick with my real twisties.
Soas you can see we could easily tell the difference between all of those foodswe've both got all of them right, which ones are GF and which ones weren't.
So taste wise and texture wise it takes a lot of work to try andreplicate a recipe that has gluten in it and make it gluten-free but perhapsbecause it doesn't taste as good maybe that's why a 65% of Americansthink that gluten-free products are healthy.
So if it tastes bad it must be goodfor you.
That's the logic ok and 30% of Americanscurrently trying a gluten-free diet.
To lose weight.
Yes because they think it'shealthy .
eating gluten-free will help them lose weight.
As you saw beforethough with the bread you can't just swap gluten-free flourfor normal flour you have to actually modify the recipe to get an end resultthat looks this close to the original one so let's just have a look at a fewof the products and see what difference nutritionally changing the recipe makesto the end product.
If we start the twisties they're not good for you anywaysorry Dave but a packet of normal twisties has four teaspoons of fat in itand a packet of gluten-free twisties has six teaspoons of fat in it.
So it's got a lot moreand the reason for that is gluten-free products tend to taste very dry in yourmouth.
A way that manufacturers overcome that dryness is they add morefat so you'd think you'd add more moisture but fat actually gives thatmoist mouth feel so if you think about eating a really fatty steak it tastes alot more moist than a totally lean steak that tends to taste quite dry .
it's thefact that gives you that moistness in your mouth.
Probably more important issomething like bread that people might eat more regularly.
The gluten-free breadis higher in fat and has less fibre and less vitamins and less minerals in itthan the normal bread does.
The cereal which normally has virtually no fat init and a good amount of fibre, when compared to the gluten-free one it hastwo teaspoons of fat in every serve and only half the fibre of the normal WeetBix.
Studies across all gluten-free foods have found that is pretty much thecase most gluten-free foods are higher in calories higher in fat lower in fiberand lower in vitamins especially B vitamins than their non gluten-freecounterparts and there was one study done that showed that people who areconsuming a gluten-free diet therefore tended to have higher caloriesand actually gain weight than people who were not on a gluten-free diet.
So shouldanyone be on a gluten-free diet? Well there's one group of peoplewho definitely have to be on a gluten-free diet and that's people withceliac disease.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder where your body seesgluten as foreign so if you eat gluten it sends out an immune responseto attack the gluten and unfortunately while it's doing that it also does damageto the gut.
Our gut is pretty amazing if you take just the small intestines andspread them out into one long tube rather than all curled up it's actuallyseven meters long and about three centimeters in diameter but it has theabsorptive area to absorb nutrients into the body of about the size of a tenniscourt.
Now if you're good at maths you'll have gone hang on a minute that doesn'tadd up .
if you take a cylinder that's 7 meters long and three and a halfcentimeters in diameter and you flatten that out then you've got a rectangleseven meters long by the circumference of the circle which is 2 Pi R whichturns out to be nine point four centimeters .
put that into meters 🧮 andthen you times the length by the width and it has a surface area of only zeropoint six five eight meters squared so how is that even possible? they'recompletely different numbers one is way bigger than the other.
Well the inside ofthe intestine is not smooth instead it's ridged – like a ridged pipe all the wayalong it has these ridges and folds and that increases the surface area somewhatbut the really tricky thing that increases it amazingly is it has theselittle things called villi or little bits that come up about a millimeterthey're only small all over the surface of the whole small intestine .
a bit likea shag carpet or who looks a bit like this with all these different villisticking up.
Now in someone who has celiac disease when the immune responsehappens and it damages the gut it damages all those villi and they getflattened down.
So now the surface area for absorbing nutrients is greatlygreatly decreased back down to that small little area so they often tend tobe malnourished because they can't absorb the nutrients that they need.
Sobefore diagnosis people with celiac disease can often have vitamindeficiencies and be underweight and I'm wondering if that's where the confusionhas come in although it doesn't really make sense because once you're diagnosedand you stop eating gluten and the gut repairs then you can start absorbingnutrients and then they tend to put on weight which is a good thing if they'reunderweight and malnourished they need to put on some weight and absorb somegood nutrients.
Now you'd think the increase in the amount of gluten-freeproducts is a dream come true for people with celiac disease and in certaincircumstances it is but there's a downside to it .
for people with celiacdisease even eating a tiny amount of gluten so something as small as thiscrumb of normal bread which I'm struggling to get on my finger .
somethingas small as that can cause the allergic reaction which can damage their gut! Sothey have to avoid it and they have to make sure they don't have anycross-contamination.
I've got a friend in Sydney who has celiac disease and shelike most people with celiac has little heatproof bags to put her bread in inthe toaster so she doesn't get any of anyone else's bread crumbs on her breadso there's no cross-contamination there.
I know my friend also says she hastrouble now when she goes out to cafes and restaurants because there are somany people who were ordering gluten-free to lose weight that chefsaren't being super careful about that cross-contamination, whereas if you goback 15 years the only people ordering gluten free were people with celiacdisease so they took it very seriously and made sure a bit like someone with apeanut allergy you'd make sure they don't get even a trace in there andthat's how careful people with the celiac disease need to be.
The othergroup of people who need to avoid gluten is people with gluten sensitivity.
Now gluten sensitivity is not celiac disease it is different.
They don't havethat immune response they don't have all the villi disappearing they still havenormal gut absorption but they do get some gastrointestinal symptoms if theyeat gluten and they can range from things like stomachcramps, diarrhea, bloating some people say they get foggy head as well.
you wouldn't get just that though if you didn't have the gastrointestinalsymptoms when eating gluten.
Now this one's a bit harder to diagnose withceliac disease there's a blood test and then they'll do an endoscopy so they puta camera down your throat down your esophagus, through your stomach into yoursmall intestine and they'll have a look there with that camera and see the villithey are very small so they'll often also take a biopsy which looks prettybrutal but that is taking a little sample and then they can look at thatunder the microscope and see if those villi are there or if they're flattenedout.
Now of course if someone hasn't eaten gluten their gut will haverepaired so that test is only helpful if you've been eating gluten for at leastthe two weeks before the test if someone tells you that you need that test makesure you're not eating gluten-free before it.
So if you think you might haveceliac disease go see your doctor and they can certainly test you for that.
Nowif you think you may have gluten sensitivity then try a gluten-free dietfor a couple of weeks then try a challenge day and add gluten in.
Onlydo that if you had two weeks symptom free if you're still getting thesymptoms that wasn't the cause of them.
So if you had two weeks symptom free doa challenge day add it back in and see if you get that response again then youmay be gluten sensitive and that may be the problem.
The reason why Isay it may be is because when they've done studies with people who say they'regluten sensitive and they do a double-blind challenge which means theperson giving you the tablet doesn't know what's in it and you don't knowwhat's in it, half them a placebo half of them are actually gluten, of the peoplewho are given gluten and this is people who said they're sensitive to glutenonly a third of them actually had a reaction.
The rest of them didn't have areaction at all so that can mean .
one you could say well it was just a placeboeffect they eat gluten and they feel bad but those symptoms are pretty badsymptoms so I would say that's unlikely it's probably more likely that they'reactually reacting to something else in the wheat.
So if you look at thefodmap diet wheat barley rye are all under the fructan section so theycould be having a reaction to that.
They could be having a reaction to variousother things in the wheat other than the gluten and it would be good to beable to pinpoint that but to be honest if you are just avoiding gluten andhaving none of those unpleasant symptoms and it's working for you and with achallenge you're getting them back then you should be okay to keep going on that.
Other than that if you don't have gluten sensitivity and you don't have celiacdisease you don't need to be on a gluten-free diet and in fact it's notgoing to be healthier for you it may make you gain weight.
I hope you'velearnt something new today I'd like to say thank you to my patrons for all ofyour support every single month I really appreciate it 💕 it encourages meto keep making videos for you and it supports me to be able to buy expensivegluten-free products and ingredients and all of those sort of things.
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That makes nutritionally.
nutritionally and 30% of Americans arecurrently currently let's try that again I have to change the recipe completelyblah blah .
it is just very unique as far Do you want me to do it? as yousomething that gluten.
Gluten is good for your glutes and as Germans say glutenMorgan! Last time or this we're gonna nail this.
If we don't get this we're not doing it.
Not doing it at all.
Cancelling the whole video?!wow wow wow.
click here to watch some debunking videos, here to watch somerecipes, make a great week and I'll see on Friday 💝.