Do you remember Spearman's concept ofgeneral intelligence? Raymond Cattell revised it and instead proposed twotypes of cognitive abilities.
He hypothesized that we have fluidintelligence and crystallized intelligence.
Fluid intelligence (Gf) is the ability to solve novel problems in new situations by using reasoning, andcrystallized intelligence (Gc) is a knowledge-based ability which isstrongly dependent on education and experience.
So, it's the ability to use learned knowledge and experiences.
Cattell hypothesized that fluid intelligencedeclined with age, while crystallized intelligence was largely resistant tothe effects of aging.
Cattell’s theory was almost forgotten, but Cattell's studentJohn L.
Horn revived it in 1966.
Horn argued that fluid and crystallizedintelligence were only two among several factors, and Horn eventually identified9 or 10 broad abilities.
But, despite these revisions of the theory, the theorycontinued to be called Gf-Gc Theory.
After a comprehensive reanalysis ofearlier data, John B.
Carroll proposed the three stratum theory in 1993.
The threestratum theory is a hierarchical model with three levels.
The bottom stratumconsists of narrow abilities which are highly specialized such as induction andspelling ability.
In the second stratum, we find broad abilities.
Carroll identifiedand put 8 abilities in the second stratum.
For the most part, Carroll didaccept Spearman's concept of general intelligence as he put the G factor inthe uppermost, third stratum.
In 1999, Cattell and Horn’s Fluid Intelligence andCrystallized Intelligence Theory, the Gf- Gc Theory, merged with Carroll's ThreeStratum Theory.
This led to the Cattell– Horn-Carroll Theory, also known as the CHC Theory.
This theory has greatlyinfluenced many of the current broad IQ tests.
In CHC Theory, a hierarchy of factors is used; the G factor is at the top.
Under it are 10 broad abilities which inturn are subdivided into 70 narrow abilities.
The 10 broad abilities are: 1.
Fluid intelligence (Gf), which includes the broad ability to reason, formconcepts, and solve new problems using unfamiliar information or novelprocedures.
Crystallized intelligence (Gc), which includes the breadth anddepth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate onceknowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences orprocedures.
Quantitative reasoning (Gq), which is the ability to comprehendquantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols.
Reading and writing ability (Grw), which includes basic reading and writingskills.
Short-term memory (Gsm), which is theability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds.
Long-term storage andretrieval (Glr).
This is the ability to store information and fluently retrieveit later in the process of thinking.
Visual processing (Gv), which isthe ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize and think with visualpatterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.
Auditory processing (Ga), which is the ability to analyze, synthesize anddiscriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminatespeech sounds which may be presented under distorted conditions.
Processing speed (Gs), which is the ability to perform automatic cognitivetasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.
Examples of automatic cognitive tasks are visual exploration tasks, decision-making tasks, or doing simple mathematical calculations.
Decision/reaction time/speed (Gt).
This reflects the immediacy with which an individualcan react to stimuli or tasks.
this is typically measured in seconds orfractions of seconds.
And, when it comes to IQ testing and CHC Theory, we cannotconfuse it with processing speed, as psychometricians typically measure thatin intervals of 2-3 minutes.
Modern IQ tests don't necessarilymeasure all of these broad abilities.
For example, quantitative reasoning andreading and writing abilities may be seen as measures of school achievementand not IQ.
And, decision/reaction time/ speed may be difficult to measurewithout special equipment.
Earlier, psychometricians often subdivided G intoonly fluid and crystallized intelligence, as fluid intelligence was thought to correspond to the nonverbal or performance sub tests and thecrystallized intelligence to the verbal sub tests in the earlier versions of thepopular Wechsler IQ test.
More recent research, however, has shown that thesituation is more complex than that.
Modern comprehensive IQ tests don't stop at reporting a single IQ score.
Although they still give an overall score, now, they also give scores for many of these more restricted abilities.
This way, theyidentify an individual's particular strengths and weaknesses.
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